essay on environmental pollution in 250 words-Nepal-2022


                           ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Environment simply refers to ours surrounding. All the natural and man-made things that we see are the elements of the environment. Pollution means decline of the original qualities of the elements of the environment like air, water, land, etc. Our environment determines our health and civilization. 

Environmental pollution is one of the greatest threats of the world today. All living being birds, animals, insects, plants and even human beings are victims of pollution. No part of the world now is unaffected by the problem of pollution these days.

Pollution is of different types. They are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. Pollution causes various kinds of harms. Polluted air causes lung diseases, pain ad asthma. Similarly, when we drink polluted water become ill with diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, etc. Loud noise harms our ear. However, the greatest harm is the depletion of the ozone layer. It causes increase in temperature in the earth, acid rain and drought.

The main reason of pollution is industrialization and population increase. These two bring about environmental change. Many factories have been established to produce goods. These factories and vehicles like bus, truck, car, motorcycle emit huge quantities of smoke into the atmosphere. Similarly, over population causes deforestation. So the ecological balance of nature is disturbed.

Environmental problem has been a major problem in the cities of Nepal. The industries are located in the cities like Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar and Chitwan. Population density is also high there. We do not have good system for the disposal of garbage. We link our drainage to the nearby rivers. So the people in these places suffer from different communicable diseases.

It is the duty of the government and citizens to take the initiative to make the world a better place. Awareness in people is essential. If human beings as well as other organisms are to survive, the environment must be kept neat and clean.   



For the well-being of living beings, fresh air is the most important element. Air pollution is the undesirable change in the physical or biotic elements of the environment which may cause adverse effects to the biotic community. Pollutants can be divided into two categories on the basis of their production. They are:

         i.            PRIMARY POLLUTANTS:

                                           They can be defined as the pollutants which are directly emitted to the environment from the source. For example: nitrogen derivatives, oxides, halogens, etc.

       ii.            SECONDARY POLLUTANTS:

                                             They can be defined as the pollutants which are not directly emitted but are formed when primary pollutants chemical react in the atmosphere. For example: ozone, formaldehyde, acetyl nitrate, etc.

Dust particles which are emitted from industries and factories, pollutants from burning coal and improper management of waste products, smoke emitted from vehicles, etc. are the major causes of air pollution.





                                       These sources of air pollution are directly related to the activities of the nature. Examples: volcano eruption, forest fire, dust storms, etc.



                                       The sources of air pollution which are not naturally made but caused due to human activities are called artificial sources. Examples: CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, Cl2, NH3, etc. gases produced by burning fuel, industrialization, over population, deforestation, automobile, nuclear explosions, etc.



Air pollution may cause various short and long term effects in the elements of the environment and human health. The effects caused due to air pollution are:



                                          When various gases and dust particles mix in the atmosphere, it makes the sky blurry which is often termed as haze. This is the reason why people living in city areas cannot enjoy the clear sky. Due to fog and smog, people cannot see nearby objects clearly which makes it much risky to drive vehicles and fly airplanes due to reduced visibility.


                                                     The areas where air pollution is high, solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles and moved to various place. Due to this, the amount of solar radiation required to reach the surface cannot get there and there will be the reduction of solar radiation. On the other hand, the temperature of other areas increases drastically which is harmful to living beings.



                                      Various greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, Sulphur dioxide, etc. formed due to air pollution act like a blanket in the atmosphere, which traps the radiation and it does not let the heat escape to outer space. This causes rapid increase in the temperature of the earth. This is known as greenhouse effect.



                                          Sunlight is very important for plants to prepare food through photosynthesis. But increasing air pollution causes reduction in solar radiation due to which plants do not get enough light for their proper growth and development. This causes inhibition in biological growth of plants.


                                                                                     Air pollution has contributed directly to the deteriorating health condition oh humans. Gases like carbon monoxide causes headache, nausea, difficulty in breathing, etc. Nitrogen oxide causes stinging of the eyes, coughing, headache, dry throat, congestion, etc. It may also cause insomnia, laziness, etc.



                                                                      The chemicals causing ozone layer depletion are mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide, etc. which are emitted due to air pollution. These compounds decompose in the atmosphere and form nascent hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, etc. which deplete the ozone layer.

g.    ACID RAIN:

                                      The process of deposition of acid gases like Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc. from the atmosphere on land in the form of rain is called Acid rain. In the atmosphere these oxides are unable to remain in the gaseous state and hence they react with moisture to form acids which fall into the earth as acid rain. Buildings, mountains, statues, bridges, etc. are corroded by acid rains.



                                                                                                 Over a long period of time, air pollution can damage various monuments and buildings of historical importance permanently lowering their esteem. We can take the example of Taj mahal in India which is being damged due to excessive pollution.


                                                      Air pollution causes dust as well as gases to collect in the atmosphere which increases the temperature in some places and decreases the temperature in other places. Due to this, ice melts and it may cause floods in some regions and drought in others.



In order to prevent any further air pollution, the following measures can be implemented:

1.    The emission of air pollutants from industries should be controlled by using electrostatic precipitators of filter.

2.    The industrial areas should be constructed far from human settlements.

3.    Over population should be controlled.

4.    Some cheap fuels with higher Sulphur content should be banned and the use of disuphurized coal should be encouraged.

5.    Roadside plantation of trees should be done along the side of the roads which help to minimize the content of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

6.    Alternate sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, etc. should be used instead of petroleum products.

7.    Various awareness programmes about the effects of air pollution should be conducted.



 Water in its purest form is colorless and odourless. But due to various human as well as natural activities, many pollutants enter the sources of water and make them polluted. This causes the water to be unsafe for daily usage. Water pollution can be defined as any undesirable changes in physical and biotic element of water. It degrades the quality of water which may cause serious health hazards.

Sources of Water Pollution

   Although water pollution is caused by both humans and natural activities, mostly humans are only responsible for this problem. Natural causes may be mixing of dust in sources of water, production of bacteria and harmful germs in water. Thus, the causes of water pollution can be summarized below:

a)          Sewage water:

    The liquid waste discharged from industrial as well as domestic Sources is called sewage. This sewage without any treatment is directly discharged into sources of water like rivers, lakes, etc. This activity has resulted in spread of water borne diseases as well as the depletion of aquatic life.

b)  Contaminated from industries: 

     Along with the production of various useful products from industries, they also produce various chemical, papers and radioactive substances which are directly discharged into the sources of water without any treatment. Thus, the water will neither be capable of holding aquatic life nor will it be fit for human consumption.

c)          Agricultural wastes: 

     Farmers use various poisonous chemicals like DDT, BHC, Aldrin, etc. to kill pests and insects and increase the crop yield. But, sometimes farmers use these fertilizers in excessive amount due to lack of knowledge about their use. During the rainy season or due to human causes, such harmful chemicals mix with sources of water and kill all the aquatic lives in the water. It may also cause harm to humans as well.


d)  Obstruction in flow of water: 

If there is any sort of obstruction in the flow of water, it may cause all the pollutants to get collected in the source of water. This may cause the water to get more polluted which can be a reason for the end of the aquatic life.

e) Oily pollution: 

Oil is an important fuel. But it is one of the major causes of water pollution. Through various means such as leakage in oil tanks, spilling and washing vehicles, etc. oil reaches the water surface and it decreases the oxygenation in water which kills the aquatic life.

f) Radioactive substances:

 Radioactive substances released from mines through various means mix with sources of water. Due to this, it may be Lethal to plants and animals including humans.

Measures to control water pollution

Water pollution can be minimized by the following activities:

1. Wastes ejected from homes and factories must be recycled by implementing recycling facilities.

2. Dead bodies of living beings must be properly disposed either by burning or burying.

3. The surrounding environment of sources of water must be kept clean by planting trees and preserving them.

4. The use of compost manure should be encouraged during cultivation rather than using pesticides, insecticides and other harmful fertilizers.

5. Proper drainage system must be built for efficient collection and treatment of wastes.

6. Various legal measures must be implemented for the protection of rivers and use of safe water.



Soil is a vital part for living beings because it provides a habitat to animals, plants, insects, human and basically every living being in the world. Soil provides necessary moisture as well as minerals to support plants life. Plants prevent erosion and many natural disasters. Many insects and microbes live in soil. Therefore, soil is an important element for insects, plants, animals and humans.

The degradation of soil due to the presence of various unwanted chemicals altering the natural state of the soil is called soil pollution. It is harmful to plants as well as any other forms of life. Uneducated farmers use insecticides, pesticides and various fertilizers in excess amount which not only degrades the quality of soil such as soil texture, water holding capacity, porosity, etc. but also minimizes crop yield. This also kills various useful animals living inside the soil. Soil pollution is mostly found in urban and industrialized areas. If land is polluted, to neither plants can develop properly nor is it suitable for animals.

 In short, if the physical and chemical properties of the land change and cause harm to plants as well as animals, it is called soil pollution. 

Sources of soil pollution

Land gets polluted because of various reasons. There are various sources of land pollution such as domestic wastes, use of harmful chemicals, industrial wastes, use of fertilizers, acid rain, etc. The wastes emitted from sources are the main pollution of soil. The major reasons for the pollution of land are as follows:

a)   Domestic wastes

Many products, both edible and non- edible, are used in our daily life. Domestic wastes include waste products such as dust, excreta, broken utensils, plastic, contaminated food etc. When these wastes come in contact with land, it may produce many harmful microbes which also supports in the formation of various diseases. If lots of wastes get deposited in a certain place, it may act as a breeding place for various bacteria. Land pollution may also decrease the fertility of soil.


b)    Excessive use of pesticides

Farmer's main job is to cultivate various crops. However, sometimes various insects and pests attack their crops. In order to protect the crops from any damage, many chemical compounds are used. These chemicals protect the crops from harmful insects. But they also pollute the soil. Due to this reason, insecticides, fungicides, weedicides, etc. are considered as  pollutants. The most dangerous substances that cause harm to the soil are DDT, dialdrin, Aldrin, parathion, etc.

                c) Industrial waste

                          Many useful objects are manufactured by industries. However, some other objects which cause pollution are also emitted. The substances which are thrown from factories include chemicals, metals, nonmetals, waste products, living wastes, etc. which cause harm to the natural quality of the soil which pollutes it and degrades the crop yield. It may also adversely harm the living animals in the polluted soil.


        d)       Use of chemical fertilizers

Many fertilizers are used to increase the productivity and fertility of the soil. If it is used in proper amount, it may increase the crop yield. However, excessive use of these fertilizers is the major cause of soil pollution. Fertilizers contain various elements such as Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb) etc. These elements are responsible for killing various useful living organisms in the soil and also causing imbalance in the nutrients of the soil.

e)                  Municipal Wastes

Municipalities are the major sources of waste products. These waste products most often do not get disposed in the right area due to which the soil gets contaminated. These waters are both organic and inorganic and are responsible for the depletion of fertility of the soil.

f)                   Acid rain

Basically, the presence of any sorts of acid in rain is regarded as acid rain. The major compounds causing acid rain are sulphuric acid (H2S04), nitric acid (HN03), hydrochloric acid (HCI), Carbonic acid (H2C03).


1.    The use of harmful chemical fertilizers must be replaced by compost mature in order to maximize the crop yield.

2.    The use of pesticides and insecticides must be minimized and other methods of controlling pests which do not contaminate the soil must be used.

3.    Proper disposal of domestic wastes should be established.

4.    The irrigation of fields using polluted water must be discouraged.

5.    The radioactive substances emitted from factories and laboratories must be appropriately disposed.

6.    Proper drainage system must be built for the disposal human excreta.

7.    Afforestation must be done in order to prevent the soil erosion from natural disasters such as floods, landslides, etc.

8.    The use of materials that do not decay over a certain period of time must be minimized.

9.    Farmers must be trained and educated through various programmes on proper use of fertilizers.

10.      Awareness programmes must be conducted to aware the people about the harmful effects of soil pollution.

11.      Soil conservation methods should be implemented to preserve the soil.

                                   Chemical Pollution


Environmental deterioration due to unscientific and improper use of chemical substances is called chemical pollution. Our environment is getting increasingly unhygienic and polluted day by day because of this chemical pollution. In general, chemical pollution is excessive in the areas with high population density.

Some causes of chemical pollution are as follows:

1.   Chemical fertilizers:

 Chemical fertilizers and insecticides used by the farmers constitute the major part of chemical pollution. The chemicals contained in fertilizers get dissolved in water and reach rivers, streams and ponds. This process supports the excessive growth of algae and other immaterial grasses. This obviously results in over-exploitation of oxygen in the water when they decay after their death. It brings a gradual reduction in the number of organisms in the water as they have to undergo oxygen deficiency.

2.   Insecticides: 

The use of insecticides has a negative impact on useful plants and organisms as well. DDT, BHC, methoxychloride, etc. are commonly used insecticides which kill many useful insects and hamper the growth of some plants. This chemical is stored in plants and animals and harms them causing chronic and infectious diseases. Many animals who feed on dead animals (death is caused by insecticides) are badly affected by insecticides.

Dieldrine, aldrin, cobalt, lead, mercury, etc. directly pollute our environment. The use of lead containing petrol is seriously injurious to our health. Scientists are making efforts to produce lead free petrol. The industries established on the bank of rivers, seas and oceans excrete a great amount of mercury that affects fish and other aquatic animals the sea. Many people were killed because of eating the fish containing profuse level of mercury in 1950 in Japan.

3.   Refuses and waste materials:

 Dirt and waste materials are the main causes of environmental pollution. The rapid degradation of our environment is probably owing to improper disposal of dirt and garbage being increasingly collected day to day. The noxious substances in the dirt spread out in the air and water causing rise in atmospheric pollution.

4.   Plastic: 

Plastic is used to make utensils, bags, pipes and many other things. The things made by plastic are not decomposed; it ultimately creates an alarming problem in the environment. This gives off poisonous gas on being burnt. Hence, it is really essential to develop the recycling process of waste plastic in order to save the environment from being polluted.

3. Smoke from the means of transport and industries:

The gases thrown out by vehicles and industries, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, etc. constitute the greater part of atmospheric pollution. These gases return to the earth surface in the form of acid rain during rainfall. It causes degradation of cultural heritages like parent rocks, ancient statues buildings, temples, etc. It increases the quantity of acid in the soil and lowers fertility.

Greenhouse effect is on the rise due to the increasing quantity of      carbon dioxide in the air. It has resulted in global temperature increment and dreadful droughts. High temperature accelerates the melting of snow in the polar regions causing the sea surface to rise higher. The lands along the edge of the sea will then come under water. Dust and smoke cause chronic lung diseases in animals. Moreover, dense smoke has a negative effect on the environment. It causes lung diseases.

4. Colours used in foodstuffs:

 Many people prefer to use different colours in foodstuffs and drinks like tea, coffee, chocolate, etc. to make them attractive to look. This kind of use of colours in food is ruinous to our health. It increases the possibility of death by causing diseases like cancer.

 5. Synthetic clingers:

Many synthetic clingers are composed of noxious chemicals. we need to be very conscious of them while using them for different purposes. Plants are to be protected from the water in which such substances are dissolved.

 Control measures of chemical pollution


l. Rules and regulations are to be made to establish industries, factories and other thermal plants far from residential areas. 

2. Farmers are suggested for the use of organic fertilizers rather than chemical fertilizers.

3. Trainings should be given to farmers for the wise and proper use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.

 4. The waste water, dyes and other liquids released from industrial areas must be purified before mixing them into water bodies.

 5. Noxious smokes from industries should not be allowed spread in the air.

 6.People must be conscious of the results of using harmful substances in food.

7.Unnecessary use of fertilizers and insecticides should not be done. 

8. Vehicles and industries should be kept in proper conditions.

Pollution control is basically integral to maintain natural balance. Today it is a bounded duty of all of us to protect our environment from being deteriorated. Scientists have been engaged in finding out easier methods of environmental preservation. 

  Management of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable wastes

Solid waste is considered as any sort of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable garbage such as food wastes, construction debris, plastic, clothes etc. Primarily, the amount of solid waste is increasing day by day in urban areas in an alarming rate. The increase in the amount of domestic as well as industrial wastes due to over population causes environmental imbalance.

The unwanted or unusable wastes from industrial, commercial, agricultural operations and even from community activities are called solid wastes. Some kinds of wastes around us are garbage refuse, plastic, broken metals, glass pieces, clothes, rocks, green wastes, paper, etc. On the basis of the characteristics, solid wastes can be classified into biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid wastes. 

  •  Biodegradable wastes

The wastes which consist of organic matter and can be decomposed into their simpler components such as carbon dioxide, water, methane and other organic molecules by micro-organisms in a short time period are called biodegradable wastes. Kitchen wastes, dead animals, clothes, paper, human wastes, manures, etc. are the biodegradable wastes.

  •           Non-biodegradable wastes

Non bio-degradable wastes are the types of wastes that cannot be decomposed into its simpler components by micro-organisms, air, moisture or soil in a short period of time. These wastes are the main environmental concern as they pollute the environment and threaten to overwhelm landfills and create disposal problems. This is because these wastes cannot be converted into simpler organic compounds. These non-biodegradable wastes remain stable for a long period of time. They include plastic, foam, fiberglass, metals, etc.                             

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